According to a recent population report from 2015, Ghana has a population of 27.4 million people. Women account for 50.3 percent of the population, while men account for 49.3 percent. Ghana is the world’s 127th most populous country, with a population density of 115 persons per square kilometer. The country’s average life expectancy is 60.95 years, with a median age of 30 and an average family size of 3.5 people. The country’s population is overwhelmingly black Africans (98%) with Asian, American, and European origins accounting for the remaining 2%. Despite the fact that English is the national language, There are ethnic groups in Ghana and tribes speaking different languages.
In this article, Mrpocu.com will list all the major ethnic groups in Ghana and their way of life. This article maybe long, but it has all the information you need to know.
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Ethnic Groups in Ghana
The Akan people inhabit almost all of Ghana south and west of the Black Volta River. According to historical chronicles, Akan clans migrated from the north to the south’s woodland and coastal areas as early as the thirteenth century. Some Akan settled in Côte d’Ivoire’s eastern region, where they founded the Baule settlement.
The Akan were already settled on the seashore when Europeans came in the fourteenth century. A minor state led by an elder from one of the seven or eight clans that made up Akan society was the typical political unit. Several great governments arose from these groups, the oldest of which is supposed to be Bono (also called Brong). Before the end of the seventeenth century, well-known political entities such as Akwamu, Asante, Akyem, Denkyira, and Fante formed as a result of military conquests and partial absorption of smaller groups. For example, Asante expanded during the eighteenth century and remained an imperial power until the late nineteenth century, when it fell under British administration.
The Akan (Fante) of the coast was the first to establish contact with Europeans. These communities adopted features of British culture and language as a result of their lengthy relationship. Accepting British names as family names, for example, became customary among these people.
Togo and Ghana’s Volta Region are home to the Ewe people. They speak the Ewe language and make up 13.9 percent of Ghana’s population. Despite their mutual impact, the Ewe people first colonized the Akanland and Yorubaland territories, although they are not linked to the Akan or Yoruba ethnic groups. The Ewe people are still structured into villages, and their chiefs are chosen by consensus with the elders’ guidance. The chief is not permitted to drink and must cover his head in public. The Ewe people’s religion is centered on Mawu and Lisa, the creators. Other gods are also worshipped by them. Their festivals include music such as drumming and dance.
The Northern Regions of the Kingdom of Dagbon are home to many Mole-Dagbon people. They speak the Dagbani language and make up about 16.6% of the population of Ghana. They are linked to the Mossi, who originated in what is now Burkina Faso. The Dagombas refer to their country as Dagbon, which is 20,000 square kilometers in size and was founded by Na Gbewa. The Mole-Dagbon have a sophisticated oral heritage centered on musical instruments, such as drums.
As a result, the drummer has had an impact on its history. The Mole-culture Dagbon’s is influenced by Islamic traditions. The state region is Islam. Damba, Bugum, and Islamic holidays are among the most important festivals observed by the Dagombas.
Around the year 1000, the Guan began to move from the Mossi region of modern-day Burkina Faso. They established communities along the Black Volta, in the Afram Plains, in the Volta Gorge, and in the Akwapim Hills as they moved south through the Volta valley, before moving farther south onto the coastal plains. According to some researchers, the Guan’s extensive dispersion indicates that they were the region’s Neolithic population.
Other groups, like as the Akan, Ewe, and Ga-Adangbe, would later migrate into Guan-settled areas, resulting in the formation of Guan-speaking enclaves along the Volta and in the coastal plains. The Guan have been influenced greatly by their surroundings. For example, the Efutu, a subset of the Guan, speak Guan dialects but have adopted (with adaptations) the Fante version of several Akan institutions and use some Fante terminology in their rituals. In terms of the other Guan subgroups, the Anum-Boso speak a local Ewe dialect, and the Larteh and Kyerepong have Akwapim-like customs.
The Accra Plains are home to the Ga-Adangbe people. The Adangbe live to the east of the Accra coastlands, whereas the Ga are to the west. Despite the fact that both languages are descended from a proto-Ga-Adangbe parent language, current Ga and Adangbe are incomprehensible to one another. People from Shai, La, Ningo, Kpone, Osudoku, Krobo, Gbugble, and Ada speak diverse dialects in modern Adangbe. The Ga also include the Ga-Mashie communities that live in Accra’s central neighborhoods, as well as other Gaspeakers who migrated from Akwamu, Togo’s Anecho, Akwapim, and nearby places.
Gurma (also known as Gourma or Gourmantché) is a Ghanaian ethnic group that lives primarily in northeastern Ghana, Burkina Faso, and northern Togo and Benin, as well as southwestern Niger. They number around 1.750 million people.
The Bassaries of northern Togo and the Northern Volta of Ghana’s Kingdom of Dagbon could be among them.
Gurma is also the name of the Gurma (or bigourmantcheba, as they call themselves) people’s language, which belongs to the Gur language family. The Gurma speak Gurmanchema and Oti-Volta languages, which are related languages.
How Many Major Ethnic Groups Are In Ghana
Ghana’s population is divided into six ethnic groups. These ethnic groups are grouped into about 60 minor ethnic groups.
What Are The Ethnic Groups In Ghana
The primary ethnic groups in Ghana are the Akan, Gurma, Ewe, Ga-Adangbe, Mole-Dagbane, and Guan.
List Of Ethnic Groups In Ghana Their Dance
Different tribes in Ghana have a variety of dances that they perform. The following is a list of some of the most popular dances from various Ghanaian tribes.
Adowa Dance (Akans)
The Akans execute the Adowa dance, which is named after the antelope’s movements (Adowa). The tone of the dance changes based on the situation, and it is utilized to express emotions and feelings between men and women. It’s commonly seen during weddings, funerals, and festivals.
The Ewe tribe of the Volta Region performs this traditional dance. The Agbadza is a dance that is performed during the Hogbestsotso festival and is based on a historical war known as the Atrikpui. The Banyinyi, Vutsotsor, Adzo, and Hatsatsa are the five motions that make up the Agbadza dance.
The Bamaya (Dagomba)
The Bamaya dance is performed by the Dagomba people to honor the end of a drought. It was first practiced in the Northern Region’s Dagbon states in the early 1800s. The Bamaya is a traditional “rain dance” performed only by women. Nowadays, however, men dressed as women perform it.
The Kple (Ga-Dangme)
The KPLE dance is conducted to interact with the gods and to bring people good fortune. Priestesses execute this ritual dance in temples throughout Greater Accra during the Homowo celebration in late August and early September.
Apatampa Dance (Fanti)
Apatampa, a Ghanaian dance, is performed by the Fanti people of Ghana. The dance’s name is supposed to come from a long-ago episode in which a giant attacked and slaughtered the Fante men in the dead of night. A woman appeared one night while the giant was fighting the final man and danced skilfully to divert everyone’s attention away from the struggle. Apatampa in Fante, people congratulated her for putting an end to the fight.
Borborbor Dance (Ewe)
Tribes from Ghana’s Volta Region’s center and northern regions are known for performing the Borborbor dance. It is performed at the chiefs’ and communities’ celebrations.
Is Ghana a Diverse Country?
Yes. As of 2022, the country’s population is 32 million, with numerous tribes and peoples from various backgrounds and customs. Although Ghana is a multiethnic country, black Africans make up more than 98 percent of the population.
Below is a list of Ghana demographics, showing the list of ethnic groups in Ghana and population percentage.
- The Akan 47.5%
- Mole-Dagbon 16.6%
- Ewe 13.9%
- Ga-Dangme 7.4%
- Gurma 5.7%
- Guan 3.7%
- Grusi 2.5%
- Kusaasi 1.2%
- Bikpakpaam/Konkomba people 3.5%
- Mande 1.1%